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C Program to Calculate square of a number using functions

C Program to Calculate square of a number using functions 

This program to calculate square in c allows the user to enter an integer value and then finds the square of that number using Functions.

From the below code snippet, you can see we are using the Calculate_Square function. When the compiler reaches to Calculate_Square(number) line in main() program, the compiler will immediately jump to int Calculate_Square (int Number) function.

Calculate_Square (int Number) function will calculate the square and return the value.

CODE


#include<stdio.h>

int square(int); // function prototype declaration.

void main()
{
     int number, answer;
   
     printf("Enter your number:");
     scanf("%d", &number);
   
     answer = square(number);  //Call function.
   
     printf("Square of %d is %d.", number, answer);
     }

int square(int n)
{
     //function logic is written here..
     return(n*n); //This will return answer to main function.
}

 OUTPUT

 


Arrays in C programming with examples

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An array is a group (or collection) of same data types. For example an int array holds the elements of int types while a float array holds the elements of float types.

Why we need Array in C Programming?
Consider a scenario where you need to find out the average of 100 integer numbers entered by user. In C, you have two ways to do this: 1) Define 100 variables with int data type and then perform 100 scanf() operations to store the entered values in the variables and then at last calculate the average of them. 2) Have a single integer array to store all the values, loop the array to store all the entered values in array and later calculate the average.
Which solution is better according to you? Obviously the second solution, it is convenient to store same data types in one single variable and later access them using array index (we will discuss that later in this tutorial).



How to declare Array in C
int num[35];  /* An integer array of 35 elements */
char ch[10];  /* An array of characters for 10 elements */
Similarly an array can be of any data type such as double, float, short etc.

How to access element of an array in C
You can use array subscript (or index) to access any element stored in array. Subscript starts with 0, which means arr[0] represents the first element in the array arr.


In general arr[n-1] can be used to access nth element of an array. where n is any integer number.

For example:

int mydata[20];
mydata[0] /* first element of array mydata*/
mydata[19] /* last (20th) element of array mydata*/
Example of Array In C programming to find out the average of 4 integers


#include <stdio.h>
int main()
{
    int avg = 0;
    int sum =0;
    int x=0;

    /* Array- declaration – length 4*/
    int num[4];

    /* We are using a for loop to traverse through the array
     * while storing the entered values in the array
     */
    for (x=0; x<4;x++)
    {
        printf("Enter number %d \n", (x+1));
        scanf("%d", &num[x]);
    }
    for (x=0; x<4;x++)
    {
        sum = sum+num[x];
    }

    avg = sum/4;
    printf("Average of entered number is: %d", avg);
    return 0;
}


Output:

Enter number 1 
10
Enter number 2 
10
Enter number 3 
20
Enter number 4 
40
Average of entered number is: 20


Lets discuss the important parts of the above program:

Input data into the array
Here we are iterating the array from 0 to 3 because the size of the array is 4. Inside the loop we are displaying a message to the user to enter the values. All the input values are stored in the corresponding array elements using scanf function.

for (x=0; x<4;x++)
{
    printf("Enter number %d \n", (x+1));
    scanf("%d", &num[x]);
}


Reading out data from an array
Suppose, if we want to display the elements of the array then we can use the for loop in C like this.

for (x=0; x<4;x++)
{
    printf("num[%d]\n", num[x]);
}


Various ways to initialize an array
In the above example, we have just declared the array and later we initialized it with the values input by user. However you can also initialize the array during declaration like this:

int arr[5] = {1, 2, 3, 4 ,5};
OR (both are same)

int arr[] = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5};
Un-initialized array always contain garbage values.

C Array – Memory representation
c-arrays



More Topics on Arrays in C:


2D array – We can have multidimensional arrays in C like 2D and 3D array. However the most popular and frequently used array is 2D – two dimensional array. In this post you will learn how to declare, read and write data in 2D array along with various other features of it.

Passing an array to a function– Generally we pass values and variables while calling a function, likewise we can also pass arrays to a function. You can pass array’s element as well as whole array (by just specifying the array name, which works as a pointer) to a function.

Pointer to array – Array elements can be accessed and manipulated using pointers in C. Using pointers you can easily handle array. You can have access of all the elements of an array just by assigning the array’s base address to pointer variable.

C program to perform addition, subtraction, multiplication and division

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  • C program to perform basic arithmetic operations which are addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of two numbers. 
  • Numbers are assumed to be integers and will be entered by a user. In C language when we divide two integers we get an integer as a result, for example, 5/2 evaluates to 2. As a general rule integer/integer = integer and float/integer = float or integer/float = float. 
  • So we convert denominator to float in our program, you may also write float in the numerator. This explicit conversion is known as typecasting.



CODE


 #include <stdio.h>

 int main()
{
   int first, second, add, subtract, multiply;
   float divide;

   printf("Enter two integers\n");
   scanf("%d%d", &first, &second);

   add = first + second;
   subtract = first - second;
   multiply = first * second;
   divide = first / (float)second;   //typecasting

   printf("Sum = %d\n", add);
   printf("Difference = %d\n", subtract);
   printf("Multiplication = %d\n", multiply);
   printf("Division = %.2f\n", divide);

   return 0;
}



OUTPUT

  

  

C program to subtract two matrices

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C program to read elements in two matrices and find the difference of two matrices. Program to subtract two matrices in C. Logic to subtract two matrices in C programming.


EXAMPLE:-

Input
Input elements in 3x3 matrix1:
1 2 3
4 5 6
7 8 9

Input elements in 3x3 matrix2:
9 8 7                 
6 5 4
3 2 1

Output
Difference of both matrices =
-8 -6 -4
-2  0  2
4  6  8


Matrix Subtraction
Elements of two matrices can only be subtracted if and only if both matrices are of same size. Matrix subtraction is done element wise (entry wise) i.e. Difference of two matrices A and B of size mXn is defined by
A - B = Aij - Bij (Where 1 ≤ i ≤ m and 1 ≤ j ≤ n)






CODE

#include <stdio.h>

#define SIZE 3 // Size of the matrix

int main()
{
    int A[SIZE][SIZE];  // Matrix 1
    int B[SIZE][SIZE];  // Matrix 2
    int C[SIZE][SIZE];  // Resultant matrix

    int row, col;

    /* Input elements in first matrix */
    printf("Enter elements in matrix A of size 3x3: \n");
    for(row=0; row<SIZE; row++)
    {
        for(col=0; col<SIZE; col++)
        {
            scanf("%d", &A[row][col]);
        }
    }

    /* Input elements in second matrix */
    printf("\nEnter elements in matrix B of size 3x3: \n");
    for(row=0; row<SIZE; row++)
    {
        for(col=0; col<SIZE; col++)
        {
            scanf("%d", &B[row][col]);
        }
    }

    /*
     * Subtract both matrices and store the result in matrix C
     */
    for(row=0; row<SIZE; row++)
    {
        for(col=0; col<SIZE; col++)
        {
            /* Cij = Aij - Bij */
            C[row][col] = A[row][col] - B[row][col];
        }
    }

    /* Print difference of both matrices A and B */
    printf("\nDifference of two matrices A-B = \n");
    for(row=0; row<SIZE; row++)
    {
        for(col=0; col<SIZE; col++)
        {
            printf("%d ", C[row][col]);
        }
        printf("\n");
    }

    return 0;
}



OUTPUT



C Program to Find Transpose of a Matrix

C Program to Find Transpose of a Matrix

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The transpose of a matrix is a new matrix whose rows are the columns of the original. ... Here is a matrix and its transpose: The superscript "T" means "transpose". Another way to look at the transpose is that the element at row r column c in the original is placed at row c column r of the transpose

This program takes a matrix of order r*c from the user and computes the transpose of that matrix.

In this program, user is asked to entered the number of rows r and columns c. The value of r and c should be less than 10 in this program.
The user is asked to enter elements of the matrix (of order r*c).
Then, the program computes the transpose of the matrix and displays it on the screen.

CODE

#include <stdio.h>

int main()
{
    int a[10][10], transpose[10][10], r, c, i, j;
    printf("Enter rows and columns of matrix: ");
    scanf("%d %d", &r, &c);

    // Storing elements of the matrix
    printf("\nEnter elements of matrix:\n");
    for(i=0; i<r; ++i)
        for(j=0; j<c; ++j)
        {
            printf("Enter element a%d%d: ",i+1, j+1);
            scanf("%d", &a[i][j]);
        }

    // Displaying the matrix a[][] */
    printf("\nEntered Matrix: \n");
    for(i=0; i<r; ++i)
        for(j=0; j<c; ++j)
        {
            printf("%d  ", a[i][j]);
            if (j == c-1)
                printf("\n\n");
        }

    // Finding the transpose of matrix a
    for(i=0; i<r; ++i)
        for(j=0; j<c; ++j)
        {
            transpose[j][i] = a[i][j];
        }

    // Displaying the transpose of matrix a
    printf("\nTranspose of Matrix:\n");
    for(i=0; i<c; ++i)
        for(j=0; j<r; ++j)
        {
            printf("%d  ",transpose[i][j]);
            if(j==r-1)
                printf("\n\n");
        }

    return 0;
}


OUTPUT



Matrix multiplication in Language C

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Matrix multiplication in C
Matrix multiplication in C language: C program to multiply two matrices (two-dimensional arrays) which will be entered by a user. The user will enter the order of a matrix and then its elements and similarly inputs the second matrix. If the orders of the matrices are such that they can't be multiplied by each other, then an error message is displayed. You may have studied the method to multiply matrices in Mathematics.

Matrix multiplication in C language

CODE

#include <stdio.h>

int main()
{
  int m, n, p, q, c, d, k, sum = 0;
  int first[10][10], second[10][10], multiply[10][10];

  printf("Enter number of rows and columns of first matrix\n");
  scanf("%d%d", &m, &n);
  printf("Enter elements of first matrix\n");

  for (= 0; c < m; c++)
    for (= 0; d < n; d++)
      scanf("%d", &first[c][d]);

  printf("Enter number of rows and columns of second matrix\n");
  scanf("%d%d", &p, &q);

  if (!= p)
    printf("The matrices can't be multiplied with each other.\n");
  else
  {
    printf("Enter elements of second matrix\n");

    for (= 0; c < p; c++)
      for (= 0; d < q; d++)
        scanf("%d", &second[c][d]);

    for (= 0; c < m; c++) {
      for (= 0; d < q; d++) {
        for (= 0; k < p; k++) {
          sum = sum + first[c][k]*second[k][d];
        }

        multiply[c][d] = sum;
        sum = 0;
      }
    }

    printf("Product of the matrices:\n");

    for (= 0; c < m; c++) {
      for (= 0; d < q; d++)
        printf("%d\t", multiply[c][d]);

      printf("\n");
    }
  }

  return 0;
}

  OUTPUT



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